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    學校報告廳音響擴聲系統設計與應用
    更新時間:2023-07-12
    文章來源:http://www.yessfinewines.com/
    閱讀量:22
    學校報告廳音響擴聲系統已不是單一的音響設備的有序組合,而是一個集建筑聲學(聲場)和信息電子技術(音頻電子設備)為一體的聲音閉環系統。它對環境的要求也越來越高,要求觀眾廳有足夠的聲壓,并具有均勻的聲場分布。相應地,音響擴聲系統已不是僅提供簡單的擴音功能,而是會隨使用要求不同呈現不同的聲學效果和使用功能。一般來說,音響擴聲系統主要由傳聲器、揚聲器、調音臺、聲場處理器、音頻處理器、自動混音臺及數字功放等設備構成。
    The sound reinforcement system of the school Lecture hall is no longer an orderly combination of single sound equipment, but a sound closed-loop system integrating Architectural acoustics (sound field) and information electronic technology (audio electronic equipment). It also has increasingly high requirements for the environment, requiring the auditorium to have sufficient sound pressure and a uniform sound field distribution. Correspondingly, the sound reinforcement system no longer only provides simple amplification functions, but will present different acoustic effects and usage functions according to different usage requirements. Generally speaking, the sound reinforcement system is mainly composed of microphone, loudspeaker, Mixing console, sound field processor, audio processor, automatic mixing console, digital power amplifier and other equipment.
    二、擴聲系統設計要求
    2、 Design requirements for sound reinforcement systems
    學校報告廳主要承擔學術報告、會議等以語言為主的擴聲,這就要求音響擴聲系統能真實清晰地還原語言信號。首先,系統要保證有良好的語言清晰度和足夠的、均勻的聲壓,語言清晰度頻帶在300~6000Hz。此外,報告廳也是進行歌舞、戲曲、音樂等文藝表演的場所,需要擴聲系統能還原再現各種音源。因此,這就對信號的清晰度和豐滿度提出更高的要求。
    The school's Lecture hall is mainly responsible for speech based sound reinforcement of academic reports, conferences, etc., which requires that the sound reinforcement system can restore the language signal truly and clearly. Firstly, the system should ensure good language clarity and sufficient and uniform sound pressure, with a language clarity frequency band of 300-6000Hz. In addition, the Lecture hall is also a place for performing songs, dances, operas, music and other artistic performances. The sound reinforcement system is required to restore and reproduce various sound sources. Therefore, this places higher demands on the clarity and richness of the signal.
    三、擴聲系統的設計標準
    3、 Design standards for sound reinforcement systems
    音量的設計標準音量和擴聲系統的額定功率相關,足夠的音量是擴聲系統的基礎目標要求。根據行業標準GB50371—2006《廳堂擴聲系統設計規范》對多功能用途擴聲標準要求,以語言類為主的廳堂大聲壓為≥90dB,一舞廳≥103dB,二舞廳≥110dB。音量水平是根據信噪比和系統運行特色來決定的。
    The design standard for volume is related to the rated power of the sound reinforcement system, and sufficient volume is the basic objective requirement of the sound reinforcement system. According to the industry standard GB50371-2006 "Code for Design of Hall Sound Reinforcement Systems", the requirements for multifunctional sound reinforcement standards are that the loud pressure of halls mainly focused on language is ≥ 90dB, the first dance hall is ≥ 103dB, and the second dance hall is ≥ 110dB. The volume level is determined based on the signal-to-noise ratio and system operating characteristics.
    音質的設計標準音質主要取決于擴聲系統的非線性失真和傳輸頻率特性。國標規定一廳堂傳輸頻率特性指標為以100~6300Hz的平均聲壓為0dB,在此頻帶內允許范圍為-4~+5dB,50~100Hz和6300~12500Hz的允許范圍為-8~+4dB。頻率傳輸特性是決定音質的關鍵指標,非線性失真也是影響音質效果的因素之一。此外,音樂和語言的清晰度也是衡量音質的重要標準。清晰度的衡量方法很多,實際操作中通常依靠現場的主觀感覺進行評價。
    The design standards for sound quality mainly depend on the nonlinear distortion and transmission frequency characteristics of the sound reinforcement system. The national standard stipulates that the transmission frequency characteristic index of a hall is 0dB with an average sound pressure of 100-6300Hz. The allowable range within this frequency band is -4~+5dB, and the allowable range for 50-100Hz and 6300-12500Hz is -8~+4dB. The frequency transmission characteristics are a key indicator of sound quality, and nonlinear distortion is also one of the factors affecting the sound quality effect. In addition, the clarity of music and language is also an important criterion for measuring sound quality. There are many methods for measuring clarity, and in practical operations, evaluation usually relies on subjective sensations on site.
    聲場的設計標準標準要求一廳堂不均勻度為1000Hz時不大于6dB,4000Hz時不大于8dB,100Hz處不大于10dB。所以,學校報告廳應該按照標準來構建聲場,要求有盡可能均勻的聲場。
    The design standard for sound field requires that the unevenness of a hall should not exceed 6dB at 1000Hz, 8dB at 4000Hz, and 10dB at 100Hz. Therefore, the school Lecture hall should construct the sound field according to the standard, and the sound field should be as uniform as possible.
    山東報告廳音響
    四、傳聲器的選擇和應用
    4、 Selection and application of microphones
    傳聲器是整個系統的“入口”。傳聲器把采集到的聲波信號轉變成微弱的電壓信號進行輸出,這就需要后端的音頻處理設備把信號放大提高,因此,如果話筒有雜音輸入,那么后端很難,傳聲器的選擇和使用方法對擴聲質量和效果會產生很大影響。此外,在室內存在聲反饋的矛盾,因此,對傳聲器(話筒)的靈敏度、頻響范圍、指向性都有較高的要求。
    The microphone is the 'entrance' of the entire system. The microphone converts the collected sound wave signal into a weak voltage signal for output, which requires the back-end audio processing equipment to amplify and improve the signal. Therefore, if there is noise input in the microphone, it is difficult for the back-end. The selection and use of the microphone will have a significant impact on the quality and effectiveness of sound reinforcement. In addition, there is a contradiction in acoustic feedback indoors, so there are high requirements for the sensitivity, frequency response range, and directionality of microphones (microphones).
    靈敏度是指傳聲器開路輸出電壓U和聲壓P的比值。實際上并不是靈敏度越大越好,靈敏度適中就可,不一定追求高靈敏度。傳聲增益125~6300Hz的平均值不低于-8dB。
    Sensitivity refers to the ratio of the open circuit output voltage U of a microphone to the sound pressure P. In fact, the higher the sensitivity, the better. Moderate sensitivity is sufficient, and high sensitivity may not necessarily be pursued. The average sound transmission gain of 125-6300Hz shall not be less than -8dB.
    對室內擴聲來說,擴聲系統所能達到的聲音大小程度受聲反饋(反饋就是聲音從揚聲器經功放音箱輸出再傳回揚聲器的過程。經多次反饋達到一定時,嘯叫便會產生)的牽制。因此,在同一擴聲系統中,傳聲器靈敏度高了,輸出電壓就會增大,揚聲器發出的聲音也會相應增大。為了防止反饋嘯叫,不得不把音量調小,從而達到良好的擴聲效果。
    For indoor sound reinforcement, the level of sound that the sound reinforcement system can achieve is constrained by sound feedback (feedback is the process of sound being output from the speaker through the amplifier speaker and then transmitted back to the speaker. When the feedback reaches a certain level multiple times, howling will occur). Therefore, in the same sound reinforcement system, if the sensitivity of the microphone is high, the output voltage will increase, and the sound emitted by the speaker will also increase accordingly. In order to prevent feedback howling, the volume has to be turned down to achieve good sound reinforcement effect.
    頻響范圍是指傳聲器在一恒定聲壓下,不同頻率時測得的輸出電壓變化值。一般來說,頻響曲線越平越好,對于會議話筒,其頻響范圍在250~4000Hz就可以了。設計時應將頻譜范圍放在較高的頻段內,以提高語言的清晰度。因為人的語言頻譜范圍一般在100~4000Hz,所以對清晰度影響較大的是高頻段。
    The frequency response range refers to the variation in output voltage measured by a microphone at different frequencies under a constant sound pressure. Generally speaking, the flatter the frequency response curve, the better. For conference microphones, their frequency response range is between 250 and 4000Hz. When designing, the spectral range should be placed within a higher frequency band to improve language clarity. Because the frequency spectrum of human language generally ranges from 100 to 4000Hz, the high-frequency band has a significant impact on clarity.
    傳聲器的指向性是指在某一頻率下,在某一方向的靈敏度與大靈敏度的比值。對于學術報告、會議等語言類擴聲來說,為有效地預防、抑制聲反饋引起的聲音嘯叫,要選用有指向性的傳聲器。指向性與接受的聲波信號頻率有很大關系:頻率越低時,指向性越差;頻率越高時,指向性越強。
    The directionality of a microphone refers to the ratio of sensitivity in a certain direction to high sensitivity at a certain frequency. For language reinforcement such as academic reports and conferences, in order to effectively prevent and suppress the sound feedback caused by howling, directional microphones should be used. The directionality is closely related to the frequency of the received acoustic signal: the lower the frequency, the worse the directionality; The higher the frequency, the stronger the directionality.
    輸出阻抗是傳聲器輸出端用頻率1kHz聲音信號測得的內阻的模值,分為高阻抗和低阻抗兩種。我國推薦使用的是200Ω、600Ω和2000Ω。傳聲器具體有以下應用。
    The output impedance is the modulus value of the internal resistance measured at the output end of the microphone using a frequency of 1kHz sound signal, which is divided into two types: high impedance and low impedance. The recommended values for use in China are 200 Ω, 600 Ω, and 2000 Ω. The specific applications of microphones are as follows.
    1、拾音方式。對于傳聲器的拾音方式主要分為兩種情況:在進行語言擴聲時,話筒的聲軸要正對演講人;而在進行音樂會的擴聲時,一般采取立體拾音的方式來進行。
    1. Pickup method. There are two main ways to pick up a microphone: when performing language reinforcement, the microphone's sound axis should be facing the speaker; When amplifying a concert, three-dimensional sound pickup is generally used.
    2、相對位置。距離越大越能減少聲反饋,因此,話筒在擺放時相對位置要遠,應該盡量降低高度并避免其正對音箱。
    2. Relative position. The larger the distance, the less sound feedback can be reduced. Therefore, when placing the microphone, it should be placed relatively far away, and the height should be reduced as much as possible to avoid facing the speaker directly.
    3、傳聲器與發聲者的距離。一般來說,用作演講的話筒離口型的距離取為10~20cm為宜。若離話筒太近,受講話氣流的影響,其低頻聲音會加重,聲音出現混雜不清、悶聲悶氣的效果,直接影響語言的清晰度,所以應離話筒稍遠一點兒,避免講話氣流直沖話筒;也不能太遠,否則聲音信號會變弱,影響拾音靈敏度。另外,合適的距離能有效地抑制環境噪音的進入。一般來說,近場靈敏度要比遠場高,而環境噪音都來自遠場,如果演講者口型離傳聲器在10~20cm,發出的聲音屬于近場,演講者的低頻靈敏度比環境噪音高,從而相對抑制噪音靈敏度。
    3. The distance between the microphone and the speaker. Generally speaking, the distance between the microphone used for speech and the mouth shape should be 10-20cm. If you are too close to the microphone, the low-frequency sound will worsen due to the influence of speech airflow, resulting in mixed and unclear sound, stuffy sound, and directly affecting the clarity of the language. Therefore, you should stay slightly away from the microphone to avoid speech airflow directed towards the microphone; It should not be too far, otherwise the sound signal will weaken and affect the pickup sensitivity. In addition, a suitable distance can effectively suppress the entry of environmental noise. Generally speaking, the near-field sensitivity is higher than the far-field sensitivity, and environmental noise comes from the far-field. If the speaker's mouth is 10-20cm away from the microphone, the sound emitted belongs to the near-field, and the low-frequency sensitivity of the speaker is higher than that of environmental noise, thus relatively suppressing noise sensitivity.

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